original development tree for Linux kernel GTP module; now long in mainline.
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/*
* include/linux/writeback.h
*/
#ifndef WRITEBACK_H
#define WRITEBACK_H
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
DECLARE_PER_CPU(int, dirty_throttle_leaks);
writeback: introduce max-pause and pass-good dirty limits The max-pause limit helps to keep the sleep time inside balance_dirty_pages() within MAX_PAUSE=200ms. The 200ms max sleep means per task rate limit of 8pages/200ms=160KB/s when dirty exceeded, which normally is enough to stop dirtiers from continue pushing the dirty pages high, unless there are a sufficient large number of slow dirtiers (eg. 500 tasks doing 160KB/s will still sum up to 80MB/s, exceeding the write bandwidth of a slow disk and hence accumulating more and more dirty pages). The pass-good limit helps to let go of the good bdi's in the presence of a blocked bdi (ie. NFS server not responding) or slow USB disk which for some reason build up a large number of initial dirty pages that refuse to go away anytime soon. For example, given two bdi's A and B and the initial state bdi_thresh_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_thresh_B = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_B = dirty_thresh / 2 Then A get blocked, after a dozen seconds bdi_thresh_A = 0 bdi_thresh_B = dirty_thresh bdi_dirty_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_B = dirty_thresh / 2 The (bdi_dirty_B < bdi_thresh_B) test is now useless and the dirty pages will be effectively throttled by condition (nr_dirty < dirty_thresh). This has two problems: (1) we lose the protections for light dirtiers (2) balance_dirty_pages() effectively becomes IO-less because the (bdi_nr_reclaimable > bdi_thresh) test won't be true. This is good for IO, but balance_dirty_pages() loses an important way to break out of the loop which leads to more spread out throttle delays. DIRTY_PASSGOOD_AREA can eliminate the above issues. The only problem is, DIRTY_PASSGOOD_AREA needs to be defined as 2 to fully cover the above example while this patch uses the more conservative value 8 so as not to surprise people with too many dirty pages than expected. The max-pause limit won't noticeably impact the speed dirty pages are knocked down when there is a sudden drop of global/bdi dirty thresholds. Because the heavy dirties will be throttled below 160KB/s which is slow enough. It does help to avoid long dirty throttle delays and especially will make light dirtiers more responsive. Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
11 years ago
/*
* The 1/4 region under the global dirty thresh is for smooth dirty throttling:
*
* (thresh - thresh/DIRTY_FULL_SCOPE, thresh)
*
writeback: introduce max-pause and pass-good dirty limits The max-pause limit helps to keep the sleep time inside balance_dirty_pages() within MAX_PAUSE=200ms. The 200ms max sleep means per task rate limit of 8pages/200ms=160KB/s when dirty exceeded, which normally is enough to stop dirtiers from continue pushing the dirty pages high, unless there are a sufficient large number of slow dirtiers (eg. 500 tasks doing 160KB/s will still sum up to 80MB/s, exceeding the write bandwidth of a slow disk and hence accumulating more and more dirty pages). The pass-good limit helps to let go of the good bdi's in the presence of a blocked bdi (ie. NFS server not responding) or slow USB disk which for some reason build up a large number of initial dirty pages that refuse to go away anytime soon. For example, given two bdi's A and B and the initial state bdi_thresh_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_thresh_B = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_B = dirty_thresh / 2 Then A get blocked, after a dozen seconds bdi_thresh_A = 0 bdi_thresh_B = dirty_thresh bdi_dirty_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_B = dirty_thresh / 2 The (bdi_dirty_B < bdi_thresh_B) test is now useless and the dirty pages will be effectively throttled by condition (nr_dirty < dirty_thresh). This has two problems: (1) we lose the protections for light dirtiers (2) balance_dirty_pages() effectively becomes IO-less because the (bdi_nr_reclaimable > bdi_thresh) test won't be true. This is good for IO, but balance_dirty_pages() loses an important way to break out of the loop which leads to more spread out throttle delays. DIRTY_PASSGOOD_AREA can eliminate the above issues. The only problem is, DIRTY_PASSGOOD_AREA needs to be defined as 2 to fully cover the above example while this patch uses the more conservative value 8 so as not to surprise people with too many dirty pages than expected. The max-pause limit won't noticeably impact the speed dirty pages are knocked down when there is a sudden drop of global/bdi dirty thresholds. Because the heavy dirties will be throttled below 160KB/s which is slow enough. It does help to avoid long dirty throttle delays and especially will make light dirtiers more responsive. Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
11 years ago
* Further beyond, all dirtier tasks will enter a loop waiting (possibly long
* time) for the dirty pages to drop, unless written enough pages.
*
* The global dirty threshold is normally equal to the global dirty limit,
* except when the system suddenly allocates a lot of anonymous memory and
* knocks down the global dirty threshold quickly, in which case the global
* dirty limit will follow down slowly to prevent livelocking all dirtier tasks.
*/
#define DIRTY_SCOPE 8
#define DIRTY_FULL_SCOPE (DIRTY_SCOPE / 2)
writeback: introduce max-pause and pass-good dirty limits The max-pause limit helps to keep the sleep time inside balance_dirty_pages() within MAX_PAUSE=200ms. The 200ms max sleep means per task rate limit of 8pages/200ms=160KB/s when dirty exceeded, which normally is enough to stop dirtiers from continue pushing the dirty pages high, unless there are a sufficient large number of slow dirtiers (eg. 500 tasks doing 160KB/s will still sum up to 80MB/s, exceeding the write bandwidth of a slow disk and hence accumulating more and more dirty pages). The pass-good limit helps to let go of the good bdi's in the presence of a blocked bdi (ie. NFS server not responding) or slow USB disk which for some reason build up a large number of initial dirty pages that refuse to go away anytime soon. For example, given two bdi's A and B and the initial state bdi_thresh_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_thresh_B = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_B = dirty_thresh / 2 Then A get blocked, after a dozen seconds bdi_thresh_A = 0 bdi_thresh_B = dirty_thresh bdi_dirty_A = dirty_thresh / 2 bdi_dirty_B = dirty_thresh / 2 The (bdi_dirty_B < bdi_thresh_B) test is now useless and the dirty pages will be effectively throttled by condition (nr_dirty < dirty_thresh). This has two problems: (1) we lose the protections for light dirtiers (2) balance_dirty_pages() effectively becomes IO-less because the (bdi_nr_reclaimable > bdi_thresh) test won't be true. This is good for IO, but balance_dirty_pages() loses an important way to break out of the loop which leads to more spread out throttle delays. DIRTY_PASSGOOD_AREA can eliminate the above issues. The only problem is, DIRTY_PASSGOOD_AREA needs to be defined as 2 to fully cover the above example while this patch uses the more conservative value 8 so as not to surprise people with too many dirty pages than expected. The max-pause limit won't noticeably impact the speed dirty pages are knocked down when there is a sudden drop of global/bdi dirty thresholds. Because the heavy dirties will be throttled below 160KB/s which is slow enough. It does help to avoid long dirty throttle delays and especially will make light dirtiers more responsive. Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
11 years ago
struct backing_dev_info;
/*
* fs/fs-writeback.c
*/
enum writeback_sync_modes {
WB_SYNC_NONE, /* Don't wait on anything */
WB_SYNC_ALL, /* Wait on every mapping */
};
/*
* why some writeback work was initiated
*/
enum wb_reason {
WB_REASON_BACKGROUND,
WB_REASON_TRY_TO_FREE_PAGES,
WB_REASON_SYNC,
WB_REASON_PERIODIC,
WB_REASON_LAPTOP_TIMER,
WB_REASON_FREE_MORE_MEM,
WB_REASON_FS_FREE_SPACE,
WB_REASON_FORKER_THREAD,
WB_REASON_MAX,
};
extern const char *wb_reason_name[];
/*
* A control structure which tells the writeback code what to do. These are
* always on the stack, and hence need no locking. They are always initialised
* in a manner such that unspecified fields are set to zero.
*/
struct writeback_control {
long nr_to_write; /* Write this many pages, and decrement
this for each page written */
long pages_skipped; /* Pages which were not written */
/*
* For a_ops->writepages(): if start or end are non-zero then this is
* a hint that the filesystem need only write out the pages inside that
* byterange. The byte at `end' is included in the writeout request.
*/
[PATCH] writeback: fix range handling When a writeback_control's `start' and `end' fields are used to indicate a one-byte-range starting at file offset zero, the required values of .start=0,.end=0 mean that the ->writepages() implementation has no way of telling that it is being asked to perform a range request. Because we're currently overloading (start == 0 && end == 0) to mean "this is not a write-a-range request". To make all this sane, the patch changes range of writeback_control. So caller does: If it is calling ->writepages() to write pages, it sets range (range_start/end or range_cyclic) always. And if range_cyclic is true, ->writepages() thinks the range is cyclic, otherwise it just uses range_start and range_end. This patch does, - Add LLONG_MAX, LLONG_MIN, ULLONG_MAX to include/linux/kernel.h -1 is usually ok for range_end (type is long long). But, if someone did, range_end += val; range_end is "val - 1" u64val = range_end >> bits; u64val is "~(0ULL)" or something, they are wrong. So, this adds LLONG_MAX to avoid nasty things, and uses LLONG_MAX for range_end. - All callers of ->writepages() sets range_start/end or range_cyclic. - Fix updates of ->writeback_index. It seems already bit strange. If it starts at 0 and ended by check of nr_to_write, this last index may reduce chance to scan end of file. So, this updates ->writeback_index only if range_cyclic is true or whole-file is scanned. Signed-off-by: OGAWA Hirofumi <hirofumi@mail.parknet.co.jp> Cc: Nathan Scott <nathans@sgi.com> Cc: Anton Altaparmakov <aia21@cantab.net> Cc: Steven French <sfrench@us.ibm.com> Cc: "Vladimir V. Saveliev" <vs@namesys.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
16 years ago
loff_t range_start;
loff_t range_end;
enum writeback_sync_modes sync_mode;
unsigned for_kupdate:1; /* A kupdate writeback */
unsigned for_background:1; /* A background writeback */
unsigned tagged_writepages:1; /* tag-and-write to avoid livelock */
unsigned for_reclaim:1; /* Invoked from the page allocator */
[PATCH] writeback: fix range handling When a writeback_control's `start' and `end' fields are used to indicate a one-byte-range starting at file offset zero, the required values of .start=0,.end=0 mean that the ->writepages() implementation has no way of telling that it is being asked to perform a range request. Because we're currently overloading (start == 0 && end == 0) to mean "this is not a write-a-range request". To make all this sane, the patch changes range of writeback_control. So caller does: If it is calling ->writepages() to write pages, it sets range (range_start/end or range_cyclic) always. And if range_cyclic is true, ->writepages() thinks the range is cyclic, otherwise it just uses range_start and range_end. This patch does, - Add LLONG_MAX, LLONG_MIN, ULLONG_MAX to include/linux/kernel.h -1 is usually ok for range_end (type is long long). But, if someone did, range_end += val; range_end is "val - 1" u64val = range_end >> bits; u64val is "~(0ULL)" or something, they are wrong. So, this adds LLONG_MAX to avoid nasty things, and uses LLONG_MAX for range_end. - All callers of ->writepages() sets range_start/end or range_cyclic. - Fix updates of ->writeback_index. It seems already bit strange. If it starts at 0 and ended by check of nr_to_write, this last index may reduce chance to scan end of file. So, this updates ->writeback_index only if range_cyclic is true or whole-file is scanned. Signed-off-by: OGAWA Hirofumi <hirofumi@mail.parknet.co.jp> Cc: Nathan Scott <nathans@sgi.com> Cc: Anton Altaparmakov <aia21@cantab.net> Cc: Steven French <sfrench@us.ibm.com> Cc: "Vladimir V. Saveliev" <vs@namesys.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
16 years ago
unsigned range_cyclic:1; /* range_start is cyclic */
};
/*
* fs/fs-writeback.c
*/
writeback: switch to per-bdi threads for flushing data This gets rid of pdflush for bdi writeout and kupdated style cleaning. pdflush writeout suffers from lack of locality and also requires more threads to handle the same workload, since it has to work in a non-blocking fashion against each queue. This also introduces lumpy behaviour and potential request starvation, since pdflush can be starved for queue access if others are accessing it. A sample ffsb workload that does random writes to files is about 8% faster here on a simple SATA drive during the benchmark phase. File layout also seems a LOT more smooth in vmstat: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 0 1 0 608848 2652 375372 0 0 0 71024 604 24 1 10 48 42 0 1 0 549644 2712 433736 0 0 0 60692 505 27 1 8 48 44 1 0 0 476928 2784 505192 0 0 4 29540 553 24 0 9 53 37 0 1 0 457972 2808 524008 0 0 0 54876 331 16 0 4 38 58 0 1 0 366128 2928 614284 0 0 4 92168 710 58 0 13 53 34 0 1 0 295092 3000 684140 0 0 0 62924 572 23 0 9 53 37 0 1 0 236592 3064 741704 0 0 4 58256 523 17 0 8 48 44 0 1 0 165608 3132 811464 0 0 0 57460 560 21 0 8 54 38 0 1 0 102952 3200 873164 0 0 4 74748 540 29 1 10 48 41 0 1 0 48604 3252 926472 0 0 0 53248 469 29 0 7 47 45 where vanilla tends to fluctuate a lot in the creation phase: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 1 1 0 678716 5792 303380 0 0 0 74064 565 50 1 11 52 36 1 0 0 662488 5864 319396 0 0 4 352 302 329 0 2 47 51 0 1 0 599312 5924 381468 0 0 0 78164 516 55 0 9 51 40 0 1 0 519952 6008 459516 0 0 4 78156 622 56 1 11 52 37 1 1 0 436640 6092 541632 0 0 0 82244 622 54 0 11 48 41 0 1 0 436640 6092 541660 0 0 0 8 152 39 0 0 51 49 0 1 0 332224 6200 644252 0 0 4 102800 728 46 1 13 49 36 1 0 0 274492 6260 701056 0 0 4 12328 459 49 0 7 50 43 0 1 0 211220 6324 763356 0 0 0 106940 515 37 1 10 51 39 1 0 0 160412 6376 813468 0 0 0 8224 415 43 0 6 49 45 1 1 0 85980 6452 886556 0 0 4 113516 575 39 1 11 54 34 0 2 0 85968 6452 886620 0 0 0 1640 158 211 0 0 46 54 A 10 disk test with btrfs performs 26% faster with per-bdi flushing. A SSD based writeback test on XFS performs over 20% better as well, with the throughput being very stable around 1GB/sec, where pdflush only manages 750MB/sec and fluctuates wildly while doing so. Random buffered writes to many files behave a lot better as well, as does random mmap'ed writes. A separate thread is added to sync the super blocks. In the long term, adding sync_supers_bdi() functionality could get rid of this thread again. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
13 years ago
struct bdi_writeback;
int inode_wait(void *);
void writeback_inodes_sb(struct super_block *, enum wb_reason reason);
void writeback_inodes_sb_nr(struct super_block *, unsigned long nr,
enum wb_reason reason);
int writeback_inodes_sb_if_idle(struct super_block *, enum wb_reason reason);
int writeback_inodes_sb_nr_if_idle(struct super_block *, unsigned long nr,
enum wb_reason reason);
void sync_inodes_sb(struct super_block *);
long writeback_inodes_wb(struct bdi_writeback *wb, long nr_pages,
enum wb_reason reason);
writeback: switch to per-bdi threads for flushing data This gets rid of pdflush for bdi writeout and kupdated style cleaning. pdflush writeout suffers from lack of locality and also requires more threads to handle the same workload, since it has to work in a non-blocking fashion against each queue. This also introduces lumpy behaviour and potential request starvation, since pdflush can be starved for queue access if others are accessing it. A sample ffsb workload that does random writes to files is about 8% faster here on a simple SATA drive during the benchmark phase. File layout also seems a LOT more smooth in vmstat: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 0 1 0 608848 2652 375372 0 0 0 71024 604 24 1 10 48 42 0 1 0 549644 2712 433736 0 0 0 60692 505 27 1 8 48 44 1 0 0 476928 2784 505192 0 0 4 29540 553 24 0 9 53 37 0 1 0 457972 2808 524008 0 0 0 54876 331 16 0 4 38 58 0 1 0 366128 2928 614284 0 0 4 92168 710 58 0 13 53 34 0 1 0 295092 3000 684140 0 0 0 62924 572 23 0 9 53 37 0 1 0 236592 3064 741704 0 0 4 58256 523 17 0 8 48 44 0 1 0 165608 3132 811464 0 0 0 57460 560 21 0 8 54 38 0 1 0 102952 3200 873164 0 0 4 74748 540 29 1 10 48 41 0 1 0 48604 3252 926472 0 0 0 53248 469 29 0 7 47 45 where vanilla tends to fluctuate a lot in the creation phase: r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 1 1 0 678716 5792 303380 0 0 0 74064 565 50 1 11 52 36 1 0 0 662488 5864 319396 0 0 4 352 302 329 0 2 47 51 0 1 0 599312 5924 381468 0 0 0 78164 516 55 0 9 51 40 0 1 0 519952 6008 459516 0 0 4 78156 622 56 1 11 52 37 1 1 0 436640 6092 541632 0 0 0 82244 622 54 0 11 48 41 0 1 0 436640 6092 541660 0 0 0 8 152 39 0 0 51 49 0 1 0 332224 6200 644252 0 0 4 102800 728 46 1 13 49 36 1 0 0 274492 6260 701056 0 0 4 12328 459 49 0 7 50 43 0 1 0 211220 6324 763356 0 0 0 106940 515 37 1 10 51 39 1 0 0 160412 6376 813468 0 0 0 8224 415 43 0 6 49 45 1 1 0 85980 6452 886556 0 0 4 113516 575 39 1 11 54 34 0 2 0 85968 6452 886620 0 0 0 1640 158 211 0 0 46 54 A 10 disk test with btrfs performs 26% faster with per-bdi flushing. A SSD based writeback test on XFS performs over 20% better as well, with the throughput being very stable around 1GB/sec, where pdflush only manages 750MB/sec and fluctuates wildly while doing so. Random buffered writes to many files behave a lot better as well, as does random mmap'ed writes. A separate thread is added to sync the super blocks. In the long term, adding sync_supers_bdi() functionality could get rid of this thread again. Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
13 years ago
long wb_do_writeback(struct bdi_writeback *wb, int force_wait);
void wakeup_flusher_threads(long nr_pages, enum wb_reason reason);
void inode_wait_for_writeback(struct inode *inode);
/* writeback.h requires fs.h; it, too, is not included from here. */
static inline void wait_on_inode(struct inode *inode)
{
might_sleep();
wait_on_bit(&inode->i_state, __I_NEW, inode_wait, TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE);
}
/*
* mm/page-writeback.c
*/
#ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
void laptop_io_completion(struct backing_dev_info *info);
void laptop_sync_completion(void);
void laptop_mode_sync(struct work_struct *work);
void laptop_mode_timer_fn(unsigned long data);
#else
static inline void laptop_sync_completion(void) { }
#endif
void throttle_vm_writeout(gfp_t gfp_mask);
mm: try to distribute dirty pages fairly across zones The maximum number of dirty pages that exist in the system at any time is determined by a number of pages considered dirtyable and a user-configured percentage of those, or an absolute number in bytes. This number of dirtyable pages is the sum of memory provided by all the zones in the system minus their lowmem reserves and high watermarks, so that the system can retain a healthy number of free pages without having to reclaim dirty pages. But there is a flaw in that we have a zoned page allocator which does not care about the global state but rather the state of individual memory zones. And right now there is nothing that prevents one zone from filling up with dirty pages while other zones are spared, which frequently leads to situations where kswapd, in order to restore the watermark of free pages, does indeed have to write pages from that zone's LRU list. This can interfere so badly with IO from the flusher threads that major filesystems (btrfs, xfs, ext4) mostly ignore write requests from reclaim already, taking away the VM's only possibility to keep such a zone balanced, aside from hoping the flushers will soon clean pages from that zone. Enter per-zone dirty limits. They are to a zone's dirtyable memory what the global limit is to the global amount of dirtyable memory, and try to make sure that no single zone receives more than its fair share of the globally allowed dirty pages in the first place. As the number of pages considered dirtyable excludes the zones' lowmem reserves and high watermarks, the maximum number of dirty pages in a zone is such that the zone can always be balanced without requiring page cleaning. As this is a placement decision in the page allocator and pages are dirtied only after the allocation, this patch allows allocators to pass __GFP_WRITE when they know in advance that the page will be written to and become dirty soon. The page allocator will then attempt to allocate from the first zone of the zonelist - which on NUMA is determined by the task's NUMA memory policy - that has not exceeded its dirty limit. At first glance, it would appear that the diversion to lower zones can increase pressure on them, but this is not the case. With a full high zone, allocations will be diverted to lower zones eventually, so it is more of a shift in timing of the lower zone allocations. Workloads that previously could fit their dirty pages completely in the higher zone may be forced to allocate from lower zones, but the amount of pages that "spill over" are limited themselves by the lower zones' dirty constraints, and thus unlikely to become a problem. For now, the problem of unfair dirty page distribution remains for NUMA configurations where the zones allowed for allocation are in sum not big enough to trigger the global dirty limits, wake up the flusher threads and remedy the situation. Because of this, an allocation that could not succeed on any of the considered zones is allowed to ignore the dirty limits before going into direct reclaim or even failing the allocation, until a future patch changes the global dirty throttling and flusher thread activation so that they take individual zone states into account. Test results 15M DMA + 3246M DMA32 + 504 Normal = 3765M memory 40% dirty ratio 16G USB thumb drive 10 runs of dd if=/dev/zero of=disk/zeroes bs=32k count=$((10 << 15)) seconds nr_vmscan_write (stddev) min| median| max xfs vanilla: 549.747( 3.492) 0.000| 0.000| 0.000 patched: 550.996( 3.802) 0.000| 0.000| 0.000 fuse-ntfs vanilla: 1183.094(53.178) 54349.000| 59341.000| 65163.000 patched: 558.049(17.914) 0.000| 0.000| 43.000 btrfs vanilla: 573.679(14.015) 156657.000| 460178.000| 606926.000 patched: 563.365(11.368) 0.000| 0.000| 1362.000 ext4 vanilla: 561.197(15.782) 0.000|2725438.000|4143837.000 patched: 568.806(17.496) 0.000| 0.000| 0.000 Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <jweiner@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Tested-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Cc: Shaohua Li <shaohua.li@intel.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
10 years ago
bool zone_dirty_ok(struct zone *zone);
writeback: introduce smoothed global dirty limit The start of a heavy weight application (ie. KVM) may instantly knock down determine_dirtyable_memory() if the swap is not enabled or full. global_dirty_limits() and bdi_dirty_limit() will in turn get global/bdi dirty thresholds that are _much_ lower than the global/bdi dirty pages. balance_dirty_pages() will then heavily throttle all dirtiers including the light ones, until the dirty pages drop below the new dirty thresholds. During this _deep_ dirty-exceeded state, the system may appear rather unresponsive to the users. About "deep" dirty-exceeded: task_dirty_limit() assigns 1/8 lower dirty threshold to heavy dirtiers than light ones, and the dirty pages will be throttled around the heavy dirtiers' dirty threshold and reasonably below the light dirtiers' dirty threshold. In this state, only the heavy dirtiers will be throttled and the dirty pages are carefully controlled to not exceed the light dirtiers' dirty threshold. However if the threshold itself suddenly drops below the number of dirty pages, the light dirtiers will get heavily throttled. So introduce global_dirty_limit for tracking the global dirty threshold with policies - follow downwards slowly - follow up in one shot global_dirty_limit can effectively mask out the impact of sudden drop of dirtyable memory. It will be used in the next patch for two new type of dirty limits. Note that the new dirty limits are not going to avoid throttling the light dirtiers, but could limit their sleep time to 200ms. Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
11 years ago
extern unsigned long global_dirty_limit;
/* These are exported to sysctl. */
extern int dirty_background_ratio;
mm: add dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes sysctls This change introduces two new sysctls to /proc/sys/vm: dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes. dirty_background_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_background_ratio and dirty_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_ratio. With growing memory capacities of individual machines, it's no longer sufficient to specify dirty thresholds as a percentage of the amount of dirtyable memory over the entire system. dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes specify quantities of memory, in bytes, that represent the dirty limits for the entire system. If either of these values is set, its value represents the amount of dirty memory that is needed to commence either background or direct writeback. When a `bytes' or `ratio' file is written, its counterpart becomes a function of the written value. For example, if dirty_bytes is written to be 8096, 8K of memory is required to commence direct writeback. dirty_ratio is then functionally equivalent to 8K / the amount of dirtyable memory: dirtyable_memory = free pages + mapped pages + file cache dirty_background_bytes = dirty_background_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_background_ratio = dirty_background_bytes / dirtyable_memory AND dirty_bytes = dirty_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_ratio = dirty_bytes / dirtyable_memory Only one of dirty_background_bytes and dirty_background_ratio may be specified at a time, and only one of dirty_bytes and dirty_ratio may be specified. When one sysctl is written, the other appears as 0 when read. The `bytes' files operate on a page size granularity since dirty limits are compared with ZVC values, which are in page units. Prior to this change, the minimum dirty_ratio was 5 as implemented by get_dirty_limits() although /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio would show any user written value between 0 and 100. This restriction is maintained, but dirty_bytes has a lower limit of only one page. Also prior to this change, the dirty_background_ratio could not equal or exceed dirty_ratio. This restriction is maintained in addition to restricting dirty_background_bytes. If either background threshold equals or exceeds that of the dirty threshold, it is implicitly set to half the dirty threshold. Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Andrea Righi <righi.andrea@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago
extern unsigned long dirty_background_bytes;
extern int vm_dirty_ratio;
mm: add dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes sysctls This change introduces two new sysctls to /proc/sys/vm: dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes. dirty_background_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_background_ratio and dirty_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_ratio. With growing memory capacities of individual machines, it's no longer sufficient to specify dirty thresholds as a percentage of the amount of dirtyable memory over the entire system. dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes specify quantities of memory, in bytes, that represent the dirty limits for the entire system. If either of these values is set, its value represents the amount of dirty memory that is needed to commence either background or direct writeback. When a `bytes' or `ratio' file is written, its counterpart becomes a function of the written value. For example, if dirty_bytes is written to be 8096, 8K of memory is required to commence direct writeback. dirty_ratio is then functionally equivalent to 8K / the amount of dirtyable memory: dirtyable_memory = free pages + mapped pages + file cache dirty_background_bytes = dirty_background_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_background_ratio = dirty_background_bytes / dirtyable_memory AND dirty_bytes = dirty_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_ratio = dirty_bytes / dirtyable_memory Only one of dirty_background_bytes and dirty_background_ratio may be specified at a time, and only one of dirty_bytes and dirty_ratio may be specified. When one sysctl is written, the other appears as 0 when read. The `bytes' files operate on a page size granularity since dirty limits are compared with ZVC values, which are in page units. Prior to this change, the minimum dirty_ratio was 5 as implemented by get_dirty_limits() although /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio would show any user written value between 0 and 100. This restriction is maintained, but dirty_bytes has a lower limit of only one page. Also prior to this change, the dirty_background_ratio could not equal or exceed dirty_ratio. This restriction is maintained in addition to restricting dirty_background_bytes. If either background threshold equals or exceeds that of the dirty threshold, it is implicitly set to half the dirty threshold. Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Andrea Righi <righi.andrea@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago
extern unsigned long vm_dirty_bytes;
extern unsigned int dirty_writeback_interval;
extern unsigned int dirty_expire_interval;
extern int vm_highmem_is_dirtyable;
extern int block_dump;
extern int laptop_mode;
mm: add dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes sysctls This change introduces two new sysctls to /proc/sys/vm: dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes. dirty_background_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_background_ratio and dirty_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_ratio. With growing memory capacities of individual machines, it's no longer sufficient to specify dirty thresholds as a percentage of the amount of dirtyable memory over the entire system. dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes specify quantities of memory, in bytes, that represent the dirty limits for the entire system. If either of these values is set, its value represents the amount of dirty memory that is needed to commence either background or direct writeback. When a `bytes' or `ratio' file is written, its counterpart becomes a function of the written value. For example, if dirty_bytes is written to be 8096, 8K of memory is required to commence direct writeback. dirty_ratio is then functionally equivalent to 8K / the amount of dirtyable memory: dirtyable_memory = free pages + mapped pages + file cache dirty_background_bytes = dirty_background_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_background_ratio = dirty_background_bytes / dirtyable_memory AND dirty_bytes = dirty_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_ratio = dirty_bytes / dirtyable_memory Only one of dirty_background_bytes and dirty_background_ratio may be specified at a time, and only one of dirty_bytes and dirty_ratio may be specified. When one sysctl is written, the other appears as 0 when read. The `bytes' files operate on a page size granularity since dirty limits are compared with ZVC values, which are in page units. Prior to this change, the minimum dirty_ratio was 5 as implemented by get_dirty_limits() although /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio would show any user written value between 0 and 100. This restriction is maintained, but dirty_bytes has a lower limit of only one page. Also prior to this change, the dirty_background_ratio could not equal or exceed dirty_ratio. This restriction is maintained in addition to restricting dirty_background_bytes. If either background threshold equals or exceeds that of the dirty threshold, it is implicitly set to half the dirty threshold. Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Andrea Righi <righi.andrea@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago
extern int dirty_background_ratio_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
mm: add dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes sysctls This change introduces two new sysctls to /proc/sys/vm: dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes. dirty_background_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_background_ratio and dirty_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_ratio. With growing memory capacities of individual machines, it's no longer sufficient to specify dirty thresholds as a percentage of the amount of dirtyable memory over the entire system. dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes specify quantities of memory, in bytes, that represent the dirty limits for the entire system. If either of these values is set, its value represents the amount of dirty memory that is needed to commence either background or direct writeback. When a `bytes' or `ratio' file is written, its counterpart becomes a function of the written value. For example, if dirty_bytes is written to be 8096, 8K of memory is required to commence direct writeback. dirty_ratio is then functionally equivalent to 8K / the amount of dirtyable memory: dirtyable_memory = free pages + mapped pages + file cache dirty_background_bytes = dirty_background_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_background_ratio = dirty_background_bytes / dirtyable_memory AND dirty_bytes = dirty_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_ratio = dirty_bytes / dirtyable_memory Only one of dirty_background_bytes and dirty_background_ratio may be specified at a time, and only one of dirty_bytes and dirty_ratio may be specified. When one sysctl is written, the other appears as 0 when read. The `bytes' files operate on a page size granularity since dirty limits are compared with ZVC values, which are in page units. Prior to this change, the minimum dirty_ratio was 5 as implemented by get_dirty_limits() although /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio would show any user written value between 0 and 100. This restriction is maintained, but dirty_bytes has a lower limit of only one page. Also prior to this change, the dirty_background_ratio could not equal or exceed dirty_ratio. This restriction is maintained in addition to restricting dirty_background_bytes. If either background threshold equals or exceeds that of the dirty threshold, it is implicitly set to half the dirty threshold. Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Andrea Righi <righi.andrea@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago
loff_t *ppos);
extern int dirty_background_bytes_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
mm: add dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes sysctls This change introduces two new sysctls to /proc/sys/vm: dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes. dirty_background_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_background_ratio and dirty_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_ratio. With growing memory capacities of individual machines, it's no longer sufficient to specify dirty thresholds as a percentage of the amount of dirtyable memory over the entire system. dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes specify quantities of memory, in bytes, that represent the dirty limits for the entire system. If either of these values is set, its value represents the amount of dirty memory that is needed to commence either background or direct writeback. When a `bytes' or `ratio' file is written, its counterpart becomes a function of the written value. For example, if dirty_bytes is written to be 8096, 8K of memory is required to commence direct writeback. dirty_ratio is then functionally equivalent to 8K / the amount of dirtyable memory: dirtyable_memory = free pages + mapped pages + file cache dirty_background_bytes = dirty_background_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_background_ratio = dirty_background_bytes / dirtyable_memory AND dirty_bytes = dirty_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_ratio = dirty_bytes / dirtyable_memory Only one of dirty_background_bytes and dirty_background_ratio may be specified at a time, and only one of dirty_bytes and dirty_ratio may be specified. When one sysctl is written, the other appears as 0 when read. The `bytes' files operate on a page size granularity since dirty limits are compared with ZVC values, which are in page units. Prior to this change, the minimum dirty_ratio was 5 as implemented by get_dirty_limits() although /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio would show any user written value between 0 and 100. This restriction is maintained, but dirty_bytes has a lower limit of only one page. Also prior to this change, the dirty_background_ratio could not equal or exceed dirty_ratio. This restriction is maintained in addition to restricting dirty_background_bytes. If either background threshold equals or exceeds that of the dirty threshold, it is implicitly set to half the dirty threshold. Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Andrea Righi <righi.andrea@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago
loff_t *ppos);
mm: per device dirty threshold Scale writeback cache per backing device, proportional to its writeout speed. By decoupling the BDI dirty thresholds a number of problems we currently have will go away, namely: - mutual interference starvation (for any number of BDIs); - deadlocks with stacked BDIs (loop, FUSE and local NFS mounts). It might be that all dirty pages are for a single BDI while other BDIs are idling. By giving each BDI a 'fair' share of the dirty limit, each one can have dirty pages outstanding and make progress. A global threshold also creates a deadlock for stacked BDIs; when A writes to B, and A generates enough dirty pages to get throttled, B will never start writeback until the dirty pages go away. Again, by giving each BDI its own 'independent' dirty limit, this problem is avoided. So the problem is to determine how to distribute the total dirty limit across the BDIs fairly and efficiently. A DBI that has a large dirty limit but does not have any dirty pages outstanding is a waste. What is done is to keep a floating proportion between the DBIs based on writeback completions. This way faster/more active devices get a larger share than slower/idle devices. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warnings] [hugh@veritas.com: Fix occasional hang when a task couldn't get out of balance_dirty_pages] Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
14 years ago
extern int dirty_ratio_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
mm: per device dirty threshold Scale writeback cache per backing device, proportional to its writeout speed. By decoupling the BDI dirty thresholds a number of problems we currently have will go away, namely: - mutual interference starvation (for any number of BDIs); - deadlocks with stacked BDIs (loop, FUSE and local NFS mounts). It might be that all dirty pages are for a single BDI while other BDIs are idling. By giving each BDI a 'fair' share of the dirty limit, each one can have dirty pages outstanding and make progress. A global threshold also creates a deadlock for stacked BDIs; when A writes to B, and A generates enough dirty pages to get throttled, B will never start writeback until the dirty pages go away. Again, by giving each BDI its own 'independent' dirty limit, this problem is avoided. So the problem is to determine how to distribute the total dirty limit across the BDIs fairly and efficiently. A DBI that has a large dirty limit but does not have any dirty pages outstanding is a waste. What is done is to keep a floating proportion between the DBIs based on writeback completions. This way faster/more active devices get a larger share than slower/idle devices. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warnings] [hugh@veritas.com: Fix occasional hang when a task couldn't get out of balance_dirty_pages] Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
14 years ago
loff_t *ppos);
mm: add dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes sysctls This change introduces two new sysctls to /proc/sys/vm: dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes. dirty_background_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_background_ratio and dirty_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_ratio. With growing memory capacities of individual machines, it's no longer sufficient to specify dirty thresholds as a percentage of the amount of dirtyable memory over the entire system. dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes specify quantities of memory, in bytes, that represent the dirty limits for the entire system. If either of these values is set, its value represents the amount of dirty memory that is needed to commence either background or direct writeback. When a `bytes' or `ratio' file is written, its counterpart becomes a function of the written value. For example, if dirty_bytes is written to be 8096, 8K of memory is required to commence direct writeback. dirty_ratio is then functionally equivalent to 8K / the amount of dirtyable memory: dirtyable_memory = free pages + mapped pages + file cache dirty_background_bytes = dirty_background_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_background_ratio = dirty_background_bytes / dirtyable_memory AND dirty_bytes = dirty_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_ratio = dirty_bytes / dirtyable_memory Only one of dirty_background_bytes and dirty_background_ratio may be specified at a time, and only one of dirty_bytes and dirty_ratio may be specified. When one sysctl is written, the other appears as 0 when read. The `bytes' files operate on a page size granularity since dirty limits are compared with ZVC values, which are in page units. Prior to this change, the minimum dirty_ratio was 5 as implemented by get_dirty_limits() although /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio would show any user written value between 0 and 100. This restriction is maintained, but dirty_bytes has a lower limit of only one page. Also prior to this change, the dirty_background_ratio could not equal or exceed dirty_ratio. This restriction is maintained in addition to restricting dirty_background_bytes. If either background threshold equals or exceeds that of the dirty threshold, it is implicitly set to half the dirty threshold. Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Andrea Righi <righi.andrea@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago
extern int dirty_bytes_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
mm: add dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes sysctls This change introduces two new sysctls to /proc/sys/vm: dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes. dirty_background_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_background_ratio and dirty_bytes is the counterpart to dirty_ratio. With growing memory capacities of individual machines, it's no longer sufficient to specify dirty thresholds as a percentage of the amount of dirtyable memory over the entire system. dirty_background_bytes and dirty_bytes specify quantities of memory, in bytes, that represent the dirty limits for the entire system. If either of these values is set, its value represents the amount of dirty memory that is needed to commence either background or direct writeback. When a `bytes' or `ratio' file is written, its counterpart becomes a function of the written value. For example, if dirty_bytes is written to be 8096, 8K of memory is required to commence direct writeback. dirty_ratio is then functionally equivalent to 8K / the amount of dirtyable memory: dirtyable_memory = free pages + mapped pages + file cache dirty_background_bytes = dirty_background_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_background_ratio = dirty_background_bytes / dirtyable_memory AND dirty_bytes = dirty_ratio * dirtyable_memory -or- dirty_ratio = dirty_bytes / dirtyable_memory Only one of dirty_background_bytes and dirty_background_ratio may be specified at a time, and only one of dirty_bytes and dirty_ratio may be specified. When one sysctl is written, the other appears as 0 when read. The `bytes' files operate on a page size granularity since dirty limits are compared with ZVC values, which are in page units. Prior to this change, the minimum dirty_ratio was 5 as implemented by get_dirty_limits() although /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio would show any user written value between 0 and 100. This restriction is maintained, but dirty_bytes has a lower limit of only one page. Also prior to this change, the dirty_background_ratio could not equal or exceed dirty_ratio. This restriction is maintained in addition to restricting dirty_background_bytes. If either background threshold equals or exceeds that of the dirty threshold, it is implicitly set to half the dirty threshold. Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Andrea Righi <righi.andrea@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago
loff_t *ppos);
mm: per device dirty threshold Scale writeback cache per backing device, proportional to its writeout speed. By decoupling the BDI dirty thresholds a number of problems we currently have will go away, namely: - mutual interference starvation (for any number of BDIs); - deadlocks with stacked BDIs (loop, FUSE and local NFS mounts). It might be that all dirty pages are for a single BDI while other BDIs are idling. By giving each BDI a 'fair' share of the dirty limit, each one can have dirty pages outstanding and make progress. A global threshold also creates a deadlock for stacked BDIs; when A writes to B, and A generates enough dirty pages to get throttled, B will never start writeback until the dirty pages go away. Again, by giving each BDI its own 'independent' dirty limit, this problem is avoided. So the problem is to determine how to distribute the total dirty limit across the BDIs fairly and efficiently. A DBI that has a large dirty limit but does not have any dirty pages outstanding is a waste. What is done is to keep a floating proportion between the DBIs based on writeback completions. This way faster/more active devices get a larger share than slower/idle devices. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warnings] [hugh@veritas.com: Fix occasional hang when a task couldn't get out of balance_dirty_pages] Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
14 years ago
struct ctl_table;
int dirty_writeback_centisecs_handler(struct ctl_table *, int,
void __user *, size_t *, loff_t *);
void global_dirty_limits(unsigned long *pbackground, unsigned long *pdirty);
unsigned long bdi_dirty_limit(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
unsigned long dirty);
writeback: bdi write bandwidth estimation The estimation value will start from 100MB/s and adapt to the real bandwidth in seconds. It tries to update the bandwidth only when disk is fully utilized. Any inactive period of more than one second will be skipped. The estimated bandwidth will be reflecting how fast the device can writeout when _fully utilized_, and won't drop to 0 when it goes idle. The value will remain constant at disk idle time. At busy write time, if not considering fluctuations, it will also remain high unless be knocked down by possible concurrent reads that compete for the disk time and bandwidth with async writes. The estimation is not done purely in the flusher because there is no guarantee for write_cache_pages() to return timely to update bandwidth. The bdi->avg_write_bandwidth smoothing is very effective for filtering out sudden spikes, however may be a little biased in long term. The overheads are low because the bdi bandwidth update only occurs at 200ms intervals. The 200ms update interval is suitable, because it's not possible to get the real bandwidth for the instance at all, due to large fluctuations. The NFS commits can be as large as seconds worth of data. One XFS completion may be as large as half second worth of data if we are going to increase the write chunk to half second worth of data. In ext4, fluctuations with time period of around 5 seconds is observed. And there is another pattern of irregular periods of up to 20 seconds on SSD tests. That's why we are not only doing the estimation at 200ms intervals, but also averaging them over a period of 3 seconds and then go further to do another level of smoothing in avg_write_bandwidth. CC: Li Shaohua <shaohua.li@intel.com> CC: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
12 years ago
void __bdi_update_bandwidth(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
writeback: introduce smoothed global dirty limit The start of a heavy weight application (ie. KVM) may instantly knock down determine_dirtyable_memory() if the swap is not enabled or full. global_dirty_limits() and bdi_dirty_limit() will in turn get global/bdi dirty thresholds that are _much_ lower than the global/bdi dirty pages. balance_dirty_pages() will then heavily throttle all dirtiers including the light ones, until the dirty pages drop below the new dirty thresholds. During this _deep_ dirty-exceeded state, the system may appear rather unresponsive to the users. About "deep" dirty-exceeded: task_dirty_limit() assigns 1/8 lower dirty threshold to heavy dirtiers than light ones, and the dirty pages will be throttled around the heavy dirtiers' dirty threshold and reasonably below the light dirtiers' dirty threshold. In this state, only the heavy dirtiers will be throttled and the dirty pages are carefully controlled to not exceed the light dirtiers' dirty threshold. However if the threshold itself suddenly drops below the number of dirty pages, the light dirtiers will get heavily throttled. So introduce global_dirty_limit for tracking the global dirty threshold with policies - follow downwards slowly - follow up in one shot global_dirty_limit can effectively mask out the impact of sudden drop of dirtyable memory. It will be used in the next patch for two new type of dirty limits. Note that the new dirty limits are not going to avoid throttling the light dirtiers, but could limit their sleep time to 200ms. Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
11 years ago
unsigned long thresh,
unsigned long bg_thresh,
writeback: introduce smoothed global dirty limit The start of a heavy weight application (ie. KVM) may instantly knock down determine_dirtyable_memory() if the swap is not enabled or full. global_dirty_limits() and bdi_dirty_limit() will in turn get global/bdi dirty thresholds that are _much_ lower than the global/bdi dirty pages. balance_dirty_pages() will then heavily throttle all dirtiers including the light ones, until the dirty pages drop below the new dirty thresholds. During this _deep_ dirty-exceeded state, the system may appear rather unresponsive to the users. About "deep" dirty-exceeded: task_dirty_limit() assigns 1/8 lower dirty threshold to heavy dirtiers than light ones, and the dirty pages will be throttled around the heavy dirtiers' dirty threshold and reasonably below the light dirtiers' dirty threshold. In this state, only the heavy dirtiers will be throttled and the dirty pages are carefully controlled to not exceed the light dirtiers' dirty threshold. However if the threshold itself suddenly drops below the number of dirty pages, the light dirtiers will get heavily throttled. So introduce global_dirty_limit for tracking the global dirty threshold with policies - follow downwards slowly - follow up in one shot global_dirty_limit can effectively mask out the impact of sudden drop of dirtyable memory. It will be used in the next patch for two new type of dirty limits. Note that the new dirty limits are not going to avoid throttling the light dirtiers, but could limit their sleep time to 200ms. Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
11 years ago
unsigned long dirty,
unsigned long bdi_thresh,
unsigned long bdi_dirty,
writeback: bdi write bandwidth estimation The estimation value will start from 100MB/s and adapt to the real bandwidth in seconds. It tries to update the bandwidth only when disk is fully utilized. Any inactive period of more than one second will be skipped. The estimated bandwidth will be reflecting how fast the device can writeout when _fully utilized_, and won't drop to 0 when it goes idle. The value will remain constant at disk idle time. At busy write time, if not considering fluctuations, it will also remain high unless be knocked down by possible concurrent reads that compete for the disk time and bandwidth with async writes. The estimation is not done purely in the flusher because there is no guarantee for write_cache_pages() to return timely to update bandwidth. The bdi->avg_write_bandwidth smoothing is very effective for filtering out sudden spikes, however may be a little biased in long term. The overheads are low because the bdi bandwidth update only occurs at 200ms intervals. The 200ms update interval is suitable, because it's not possible to get the real bandwidth for the instance at all, due to large fluctuations. The NFS commits can be as large as seconds worth of data. One XFS completion may be as large as half second worth of data if we are going to increase the write chunk to half second worth of data. In ext4, fluctuations with time period of around 5 seconds is observed. And there is another pattern of irregular periods of up to 20 seconds on SSD tests. That's why we are not only doing the estimation at 200ms intervals, but also averaging them over a period of 3 seconds and then go further to do another level of smoothing in avg_write_bandwidth. CC: Li Shaohua <shaohua.li@intel.com> CC: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com>
12 years ago
unsigned long start_time);
void page_writeback_init(void);
void balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited_nr(struct address_space *mapping,
unsigned long nr_pages_dirtied);
static inline void
balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited(struct address_space *mapping)
{
balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited_nr(mapping, 1);
}
typedef int (*writepage_t)(struct page *page, struct writeback_control *wbc,
void *data);
int generic_writepages(struct address_space *mapping,
struct writeback_control *wbc);
void tag_pages_for_writeback(struct address_space *mapping,
pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end);
int write_cache_pages(struct address_space *mapping,
struct writeback_control *wbc, writepage_t writepage,
void *data);
int do_writepages(struct address_space *mapping, struct writeback_control *wbc);
void set_page_dirty_balance(struct page *page, int page_mkwrite);
void writeback_set_ratelimit(void);
void tag_pages_for_writeback(struct address_space *mapping,
pgoff_t start, pgoff_t end);
void account_page_redirty(struct page *page);
/* pdflush.c */
extern int nr_pdflush_threads; /* Global so it can be exported to sysctl
read-only. */
#endif /* WRITEBACK_H */